Quick Answer: Can RNA Viruses Be Latent?

Is chickenpox a latent virus?

Varicella (chickenpox) is an acute infectious disease.

It is caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which is a DNA virus that is a member of the herpesvirus group.

After the primary infection, VZV stays in the body (in the sensory nerve ganglia) as a latent infection..

Can viruses be latent?

Although many viruses are capable of subclinical infection, only a few are known to undergo true latency. In latent infection, the full viral genome is retained in the host cell, but its expression is dramatically restricted, such that few viral antigens and no viral particles are produced.

Do latent viruses replicate?

The viral genome can remain latent either as an episome or integrated in the host chromosome. The latter allows replication of the viral genome during host cell division. Virus latency is generally maintained by a few viral genes that keep the viral genome silent and escape from host immune system.

What activates a dormant virus?

When HSV replicates in skin cells, it eventually heads toward a sensory nerve. When it reaches the neuron’s nucleus, it does not go through the same lytic infection cycle. Instead of replicating, it does something unusual – the virus goes dormant. This is called a latent infection.

Can a virus keep recurring?

In chronic viral infection, in contrast, viral replication and infectious particle production are continually maintained. For many such infections, recurrent episodes of high viral production and release interrupt relatively long periods of low-level viral replication.

Can viruses produce toxins?

Bacteriophage-encoded toxins (e.g. botulism toxin, diphtheria toxin, cholera toxin, and Shiga toxin) are secreted polypeptides that modulate the virulence of the host bacteria. Exotoxin genes carried by bacteriophages are responsible for many of the symptoms associated with human diseases.

Do viruses sleep?

Most virus infections are ‘latent’ (sleeping) within the nervous system. Princeton scientists are investigating how they go to sleep — and how to prevent it.

Can RNA viruses reactivate?

However, RNA viruses have been associated with CNS diseases that appear months to years after initial infection, raising the possibility that viral reactivation and resultant pathogenesis may recur long after the acute phase is resolved.

What viruses can be latent?

Many viruses have a propensity to cause latent infections. The majority of these viruses are from the family of Herpesviridae: herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), CMV, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6, HHV-7 and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV)-8.

Is influenza A latent virus?

Influenza virus, like most other acute respiratory viruses, typically does not cause long-term latent or persistent infections in humans.

What is the difference between latent and persistent viral infections?

Persistent infections are where the viruses are continually present in the body. 3. In a latent viral infection the virus remains in equilibrium with the host for long periods of time before symptoms again appear, but the actual viruses cannot be detected until reactivation of the disease occurs.

Do viruses only have RNA?

Most viruses have either RNA or DNA as their genetic material. The nucleic acid may be single- or double-stranded. The entire infectious virus particle, called a virion, consists of the nucleic acid and an outer shell of protein. The simplest viruses contain only enough RNA or DNA to encode four proteins.

Is shingles a latent viral infection?

Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the same virus that causes varicella (chickenpox). Primary infection with VZV causes varicella. Once the illness resolves, the virus remains latent in the dorsal root ganglia.

What makes a virus latent?

A latent viral infection is a type of persistent viral infection which is distinguished from a chronic viral infection. Latency is the phase in certain viruses’ life cycles in which, after initial infection, proliferation of virus particles ceases. However, the viral genome is not eradicated.