Who Does Polio Affect The Most?

What countries are most affected by polio?

Our Progress Against Polio Only three polio-endemic countries (countries that have never interrupted the transmission of wild poliovirus) remain—Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan.

Without our polio eradication efforts, more than 17 million people who are currently healthy would have been paralyzed by the virus..

Did vaccines stop polio?

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends all children be fully vaccinated against polio. The two vaccines have eliminated polio from most of the world, and reduced the number of cases reported each year from an estimated 350,000 in 1988 to 33 in 2018. The inactivated polio vaccines are very safe.

What does Polio do to legs?

Symptoms vary from mild, flu-like symptoms to life-threatening paralysis. In less than 1% of cases, polio causes permanent paralysis of the arms, legs or breathing muscles. Between 5 and 10% of people who develop paralytic polio will die. Physical symptoms may return 15 years or more after the first polio infection.

Who is the most susceptible to polio?

Pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems — such as those who are HIV-positive — and young children are the most susceptible to the poliovirus. If you have not been vaccinated, you can increase your risk of contracting polio when you: travel to an area that has had a recent polio outbreak.

What does the polio virus look like?

The viral particle is about 30 nm in diameter with icosahedral symmetry. Because of its short genome and its simple composition—only RNA and a nonenveloped icosahedral protein coat that encapsulates it, poliovirus is widely regarded as the simplest significant virus.

What cells does polio affect?

When it multiplies in the nervous system, the virus can destroy nerve cells (motor neurons) which activate skeletal muscles. These nerve cells cannot regenerate, and the affected muscles lose their function due to a lack of nervous enervation – a condition known as acute flaccid paralysis (AFP).

Do people still get polio?

Polio does still exist, although polio cases have decreased by over 99% since 1988, from an estimated more than 350 000 cases to 22 reported cases in 2017. This reduction is the result of the global effort to eradicate the disease.

When did the polio disease start?

1894, first outbreak of polio in epidemic form in the U.S. occurs in Vermont, with 132 cases. 1908, Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper identify a virus as the cause of polio by transmitting the disease to a monkey. 1916, large epidemic of polio within the United States.

How did polio spread in the 1950s?

Transmitted primarily via feces but also through airborne droplets from person to person, polio took six to 20 days to incubate and remained contagious for up to two weeks after.

Was polio a man made disease?

It was “one of the worst biological disasters in American history: a man-made polio epidemic,” Offit wrote. In those days, polio, or infantile paralysis, was a terror. “A national poll … found that polio was second only to the atomic bomb as the thing that Americans feared most,” Offit wrote.

How do you kill the polio virus?

Two different kinds of vaccine are available, an inactivated (killed) polio vaccine (IPV) and a live attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV). The presence of neutralizing antibody against polioviruses is considered a reliable correlate of protection against poliomyelitis.

What really caused polio?

What causes polio? Polio is caused by the poliovirus. The virus enters the body through the mouth. It is spread through contact with the feces (stool) of an infected person or through exposure to phlegm or mucus when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

How long do polio survivors live?

For years, most polio survivors lived active lives, their memory of polio mainly forgotten, their health status stable. But by the late 1970s, survivors who were 20 or more years past their original diagnosis began noting new problems, including fatigue, pain, breathing or swallowing problems, and additional weakness.

What countries still have polio 2020?

Nigeria is the latest country to have officially stopped endemic transmission of wild poliovirus, with its last reported case in 2016. Wild poliovirus has been eradicated in all continents except Asia, and as of 2020, Afghanistan and Pakistan are the only two countries where the disease is still classified as endemic.

What year did they stop giving polio vaccine?

OPV was recommended for use in the United States for almost 40 years, from 1963 until 2000. The results have been miraculous: Polio was eliminated from the United States in 1979 and from the Western Hemisphere in 1991. Since 2000, only IPV is recommended to prevent polio in the United States.

What is the mortality rate of polio?

The mortality rate for acute paralytic polio ranges from 5–15%. The paralysis can progress for up to one week. Permanent weakness is observed in two-thirds of patients with paralytic poliomyelitis.